1) Decentralized and Specialized Work
The trend towards decentralized (or virtual) work has gained momentum in the past decade due to two key drivers: a) rapid advances in information communication technologies, and b) the growth of newly industrialized countries whose appetite for creating wealth and jobs for their citizens is insatiable. Decentralized work, in contrast to outsourcing and offshoring jobs, involves work being carried out in a non-traditional setting characterized by organizational walls, management structures, bureaucracy, policies, culture and so forth.

More and more of occupations are under threat of being virtualized. Examples range from newspaper photographers to radiologists to translators to airline booking agents. Referred to as the cloud workforce, people around the world now bid for contract work. Talent exchange companies such as, and Freelancer maintain virtual staffs that compete for work. The result is the steady pushing down of wage rates. Those who have earned…

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